em benin
Embassy of Venezuela in Benin
Historical Synthesis PDF Print E-mail

Indian Period

periodo-indigenaVarious theories attempt to explain the peopling of the American territory and therefore the Venezuelan These include the "indigenous" Florentino Ameghino, the "Asian monogenist" Alex Hrdlicka, the "Oceanic" by Paul Rivet and "H" C.Osgood, the latter explains that the population of Venezuela came through two migratory axis, east and west, through which came the cultural influences of the West Indies, the Amazon basin and Central America, giving rise to the major Indian nations: Arawacos and Caribbean.

The politico-social and economic activities of the various groups became more complex as far as they settled in the territories, showing various ways of intervention in nature. The prevailing social relations of production were essentially community, egalitarian and ecological, as individuals living harmoniously with nature, producing what is necessary for their subsistence, and collectively participate in decision-making.

One of the defining characteristics of this period is the heterogeneity, because there was respect for cultural diversity among indigenous groups, groups ranging from hunter-fisher-recoletores to farmers, who had semi-sedentary and sedentary communities.

European invasion and the beginning of indigenous resistance

colonizacionFor the fifteenth century Europe shows the first signs of primitive accumulation of capital, the monarchies of Europe are in need to seek new sea routes and sources of wealth that will enable them to obtain precious metals and raw materials that meet the demands of their mercantilist economies .

The Catholic Kings were among the most interested in appropriating the new routes, which is why they supported Christopher Columbus finance his expedition in search of a new road connection to Asia. On October 12, 1492 Columbus landed at Guanahani island's shores, they christened San Salvador, Watling Island, now in the Bahamas archipelago, which meant the door to a vast source of wealth and power for the Spanish crown and the beginning of a long process of resistance against genocide, extermination cultural, domination, slavery and the plundering of natural resources of the original inhabitants of this world away.

On the third trip, August 1498, Columbus reached the shores of the Gulf of Paria, landing in Macuro east of present-day Venezuela. This was the first contact with the mainland that took the Europeans and the beginning of the exploration and conquest of the territories that later would shape our country. After the initial examination conducted by Christopher Columbus in the East and the later expeditions of Alonso de Ojeda (1499), Pedro Alonso Niño and Cristobal Guerra (1499-1500), marks the beginning of the invasion.

The first European settlement is usually recorded Nueva Cadiz (1513) on the island of Cubagua, this town was formed associated with the exploitation of the abundant pearl banks of the island and realized the future intentions of the Spanish kingdom, as pearl farm processes were performed using the slave labor of the original inhabitants of the invaded territories.

Subsequently recorded several foundations of cities in the mainland, as is the case in Cumana in 1521-the first city founded in the American continent and the consolidation of the West with the founding of Santa Ana de Coro in 1527.Since the latter part of a progressive expansion into the interior, becoming Choir in the center from which developed the exploration, conquest and settlement of the Province of Venezuela.

Province and Captaincy General of Venezuela

colonizacion-de-los-indigenasThe period of invasion mechanisms unleashed brutal violence against the indigenous population, progressively decimated in an unequal struggle for cultural and physical extermination, whose survivors suffered the imposition of the system of political, economic social and Spanish.

Indigenous resistance manifested itself in fighting for the preservation of their lands and livelihoods, but the supremacy of war, ideological penetration through the religion as well as diseases imported by the invading army, were factors that led to the consolidation of the domain Spanish on the overseas territories.

The Parcel deals and instruments were used to encourage the settlement of the colonists. The first was the granting of lands to the conquerors, giving rise to private ownership of land in America, the second refers to the allocation of origin to the Spanish people for their integration into European manners and customs, work-related and religion. The "Parcel of Indians" resulted in the enslaving of the entrusted operation.

The Catholic Monarchs designed a political-administrative system for the colonies viceroyalties, provincial governor and captain-general, reinforced by other institutions and jurisprudence as the Laws of the Indies, The Royal Treasury, the Royal Corps, the Royal Consulate and the Royal Court.

Venezuela depended on the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo until 1776 when creating one of these courts in Caracas.The economy of the Province of Venezuela was founded on the basis of production and extraction of raw materials for Spanish cities, agriculture and mining were carried on the backs of African slaves and Indians hunted on their land and brought here by force to enrich the imperial coffers.

For 1777 the trade was the cornerstone of wealth accumulation for the newly formed powerful Captaincy General of Venezuela. This activity was done through legal channels, it provided for the Spanish crown and illegal means such as smuggling in English and Dutch merchants installed in the Lesser Antilles and the present territories of Guyana and Suriname.

Precursor of Independence in Venezuela

independenciaSince the European invasion of the native peoples remained a resistance that was reduced almost to zero during the XVI and XVII.Already in place colonialism and exploitation imposed by the Spanish crown produced riots, riots, rebellions and uprisings by ethnic groups and social classes.

These movements were due to underlying economic, political and social rights, such as charging high taxes, limiting access to high positions in the colonial administration, and deep social inequalities product of slavery and landlordism, which resulted in dramatic expressions rebel groups of African descent, indigenous and white Creoles. Some motion are: Miguel Black's rebellion in the mines of San Felipe Buri (1553), The black rebellion Andresote (1733), The Revolt of San Felipe El Fuerte (1741), The Revolt of Tocuyo (1744) , The insurrection of Juan Francisco de León (1749), The revolt of the Communards of the Andes (1781), Rise of Jose Leonardo Chirinos José Caridad Gonzalez (1795), The conspiracy of Gual, Spain and Picornell (1797), The uprising of Maracaibo (1799) and invasion libertarian Francisco de Miranda (1806).


De1810 April 19 marked the beginning of the Venezuelan revolution, the dismissal of General Captain Vicente Emparan product of a popular referendum in the city of Caracas. It is a Governing Board which convenes in June of that year, the rest of the provinces of Venezuela elections of deputies in order to form a General Meeting of Provincial of the Province of Venezuela, to decide the political course to follow. in March 1811 the Supreme Congress is installed in Venezuela, with elected officials. On July 5, 1811 the Supreme Congress of Venezuela declared absolute independence of Venezuela on the Spanish empire and any other foreign power to sign the Minutes of the Declaration of Independence and to convene a Constituent Assembly to prepare a constitution for the new republic. The period since then can be divided into First Republic (1810-1812), Second Republic (1813-1814), Third Republic (1817-1819), Gran Colombia (1819-1830).


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